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Understanding Your Payment Options for Federal Student Loans

Paying for college can be challenging, and many students rely on federal student loans to make obtaining a degree possible. However, repayment can be a daunting task, particularly for those who have just graduated and are still struggling to find employment. Luckily, there are payment options available to you when it comes to repaying your federal student loans. In this blog, we'll explore your payment options, including income-based repayment and public service loan forgiveness, and provide guidance on what to do if you can't afford to pay.

Payment Options for Federal Student Loans

When it comes to repaying your federal student loans, there are several payment options available to you. The most common option is Standard Repayment, which is a fixed payment plan where you make equal monthly payments over a ten-year period. However, if you're unable to afford the standard payments, there are other options to consider. Income-Based Repayment (IBR) is a popular option that adjusts your monthly payments based on your income and family size. Another option is Graduated Repayment, which starts with a lower monthly payment that gradually increases every two years.

Standard Repayment. The standard repayment option is the default repayment plan for most federal student loans. Under this plan, borrowers make fixed monthly payments for a period of 10 years, or 120 payments. The amount of the monthly payment is determined by the amount borrowed, the interest rate, and the length of the repayment period. The standard repayment plan is designed to pay off the loan in full within 10 years, although borrowers can choose to pay off the loan sooner without any penalty. One of the advantages of the standard repayment plan is that borrowers know exactly how much they need to pay each month, making it easier to budget and plan accordingly. This plan also results in the lowest total interest paid over the life of the loan compared to other repayment options. However, because the monthly payments are fixed, the standard repayment plan may not be the best option for borrowers who are struggling to make their monthly payments. 

For borrowers who are having difficulty making their monthly payments, the standard repayment plan may not be the best option. Depending on their financial situation, they might be eligible for income-driven repayment plans that adjust their monthly payments based on their income and family size. These plans can be more affordable in the short term, but they usually result in higher total interest paid over the life of the loan. 

Borrowers who choose the standard repayment plan can save money by making extra payments whenever they can. Because there is no penalty for prepayment, borrowers can pay off their loan sooner and save on interest. Even adding an extra $50 or $100 to each monthly payment can make a big difference in the long run. 

Income-Based Repayment (IBR).  The IBR is a repayment plan for federal student loans that bases your monthly payments on your income. If you earn less than a certain amount, your payments will be reduced to a percentage of your discretionary income. Your discretionary income is the difference between your adjusted gross income and 150 percent of the federal poverty guideline for your family size and state of residence.

To enroll in the IBR, you must first apply and show that your loan payments will be a "partial financial hardship." Essentially, this means that your monthly payments on the standard 10-year repayment plan would be more than 15 percent of the difference between your adjusted gross income (AGI) and 150 percent of the federal poverty guideline. Once you're approved, your loan servicer will calculate your monthly payment based on your income and family size. You'll have to recertify your income and family size every year to continue in the program.

One of the biggest benefits of the IBR is that it can make your loan payments more manageable. Instead of struggling to make payments on the standard 10-year plan, you'll pay a percentage of your income. This can be especially helpful if you're facing financial hardships or not earning as much as you expected after graduation. The IBR also allows for loan forgiveness after 20 or 25 years of making payments.

While the IBR can be a great option for many people, there are a few downsides to consider. First, you'll end up paying more in interest over the life of your loan. Since the repayment term is extended beyond 10 years, you'll be accruing interest for longer. Additionally, your monthly payment could increase if your income goes up, which could make planning your budget more difficult. Finally, not all federal loans are eligible for the IBR. Private loans, for example, are not eligible.

Whether or not the IBR is right for you depends on your unique financial situation. If you're struggling to make your monthly payments or if you expect to have a low income for the next few years, it could be a good option. However, if you're earning enough to manage your payments on the standard 10-year plan, the IBR might not be the best choice. It's important to do your research and talk to your loan servicer or a financial advisor before making a decision.

Graduated repayment plan.  Graduated repayment is a repayment plan offered by the U.S. Department of Education for federal student loans. This plan is designed to help borrowers who have lower starting salaries by allowing them to make lower payments at the beginning of the repayment period and gradually increasing them over time as their income grows. The plan spans over 10 years, and borrowers can switch to this plan at any time during their repayment period.

Under the graduated repayment plan, the borrower makes monthly payments that start off low and then increase every two years. This means that the borrower pays less for the first two years than they would under the standard repayment plan, but by the tenth year, they’ll end up paying more. It’s worth noting that the total amount paid over the 10 years under the graduated repayment plan is slightly higher than the standard repayment plan due to the interest. That said, this plan offers a good solution for borrowers who need a break in the initial years of repayment with the assurance that the payment will gradually increase based on their income.

Borrowers with subsidized loans may find the graduated repayment option particularly attractive. With subsidized loans, the government pays the interest during the grace period, which is usually the first six months after graduation. This means that the payment made during that time goes entirely towards reducing the principle. By choosing the graduated repayment option, the borrower will have more money to put towards the principle during the grace period and still be able to manage repayments effectively.

It’s important to note that the graduated repayment option is not for everyone. If you can manage to make standard monthly payments, you will end up paying less over the life of the loan. However, if you’ve just graduated and are starting your career with a lower salary, it’s worth considering as a way to manage your repayment. Furthermore, if you are someone who anticipates that their income should grow faster than inflation, you may want to consider the graduated repayment plan due to its tiered payment methodology.

Public Service Loan Forgiveness

If you're working in a public service position, such as a government agency or non-profit organization, you may qualify for Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF). This program can forgive a portion of your debt after you make 120 qualifying monthly payments while working in an eligible position. While this program can be incredibly helpful for those who qualify, it's important to note that not all loans or employment types are eligible for PSLF. Be sure to do your research and stay up to date on the program's requirements to ensure you're eligible.

What to Do If You Can't Afford to Pay

If you're struggling to make your student loan payments, the worst thing you can do is ignore the issue. Instead, reach out to your servicer or lender immediately and discuss your options. They may be able to offer a temporary solution, such as deferment or forbearance, which can temporarily pause or reduce your payments. Alternatively, you can look into repayment plans, such as IBR or Graduated Repayment, which can lower your monthly payments and make them more affordable.

Can the Debt be Forgiven?

While student loan debt cannot typically be completely forgiven, there are some instances where it can be. In addition to PSLF, loan forgiveness programs are available to teachers, doctors, and other professionals in certain circumstances. Additionally, student loan discharge is an option in some cases of bankruptcy, permanent disability or death. Be sure to research all available options to determine what's best for your unique situation.


Repaying student loans can be a challenge, but there are options available to help make it more manageable. If you're struggling to make your monthly payments, consider reaching out to your loan servicer to discuss your options. Remember, ignoring the issue won't make it go away, so be proactive and find a solution that works for you. And remember, while student loan forgiveness may not be an option for everyone, there are programs out there that can help if you're in a public service position or working in specific professions. Don't hesitate to seek out resources and guidance to help you manage your student loan debt.